Use of Schema Theory and Multimedia Technology to Explore Preservice Students’ Cognitive Resources During an natural science Activity

This study explored the cognitive resources of 5 Black female preservice education majors during a fictitious crime scene investigation incorporating natural science concepts. The Crime Scene Investigation Toolkit (CSIT), formerly called Crime Scene Investigation Technology, was created by the ny Hall of Science (NYSCI). The goal of the NYSCI CSIT was to use technology as a tool to integrate three-dimensional learning that supports the performance expectations of subsequent Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013) – that’s , the size of Science and Engineering Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Disciplinary Core Ideas.

The CSIT uses a real-world crime situation to introduce students to claims, evidence, and reasoning about natural science disciplinary core ideas and arithmetic to unravel a criminal offense , as they use and learn digital multimedia technology. The name change of the activity reflected NYSCI’s goal to travel beyond using technology simply as a substitute for paper; for instance using digital portfolios in situ of paper portfolios. As an NYSCI project manager stated, “Many students are conversant in Google maps, but they aren’t as conversant in actually exploring map layers or brooding about other uses for maps, [such as] identifying patterns” (M. Labriole, personal communication, February 11, 2019). the necessity for activities that integrate science with technology and arithmetic to interact nonscience majors and promote critical thinking has been echoed by education researchers across science, technology, engineering, and arithmetic (STEM) education fields (e.g., Burrows et al., 2017).

In this investigation students engaged in dialogic discourse as they explored natural science concepts, calculated the slopes of unknown topographical contour maps, and used various multimedia data as evidence to unravel a criminal offense – a vandalism of the town archivist office that destroyed town records. Students were tasked with dating torn and unidentified maps.

Flick and Bell (2000) indicated that science shouldn’t be an afterthought when integrated with technology. Rather, technology learning should accompany the training of science, and students should be ready to cash in of technology as they learn science. within the NYSCI CSIT, the digital technology is multimodal, and therefore the tasks allowed students to accumulate technology skills as they went back and forth between the varied sorts of technology to make claims, analyze evidence, and reason. Students had the chance to find out technology as they learned science.

Students were required to possess their computers to incrementally access guided presentations with electronic emails and other supporting evidence. Digital multimedia technology took on various forms. Textual and visual information were provided in PowerPoint electronic slideshow presentations, which students accessed incrementally. the primary presentation provided students with options for online digital portfolios and therefore the choice to use their smartphones to capture photos and videos.

Given the time constraints of the course, students were encouraged to completely explore and use one among these options (see http://www.sites.google.com/site/googlioproject/home), with the understanding that Google Sites and a Gmail account worked best for schools. Graphics included known and unknown digital contour maps. Students downloaded Google Earth to explore terrains. They checked out Google maps and Google images to raised understand how the visual evidence are often wont to understand contour maps and the other way around .

An audio broadcast (accessible only to me, the instructor/researcher) was shared with students at the acceptable time. Technology resources were integrated into the training of natural science concepts and Earth systems. Students were provided these technology resources before the investigation and accessed them as required during the activity. These included time-lapse video clips and interactive time-lapse showing the formation and changes in various landforms. All of the digital multimedia technology data provided the evidence from which students would perform discussions and argue claims (NYSCI CSIT).

While some information could are substituted with nondigital paper formats, like the digital maps, there have been advantages to using technology, as was encouraged by NYSCI CSIT. Kaufman and Flanagan (2016) performed various studies that compared students’ performance on digital versus nondigital platforms. Their findings showed that students’ default construal was low-level thinking for the digital platform which the nondigital (paper) platform promoted more higher level thinking.

The more frequent correct answers within the paper form compared with more incorrect answers within the digital form support the tendency for college kids to be oriented toward immediacy and concreteness when using digital platforms. However, their studies also show that this default and incorrect tendencies might be mediated by priming to trigger abstract thinking before engaging during a digital platform, also as by promoting the utilization of “how” and “why” higher level tasks within the digital mode (Kaufman & Flanagan, 2016).

Thus, the utilization of digital multimodal technology is more likely to market talk and arguments among students than is that the paper mode. The NYSCI CSIT investigation consists of guiding questions that promote both abstract and concrete concepts. Students aren’t simply presented with digital multimedia, they’re tasked with the goal of solving a criminal offense by generating claims, evidence, and reasons.

Argumentation, one among the scientific practices of the NGSS (NGSS Lead States, 2013), is supported by the teachings . Argumentation involves the utilization of knowledge as evidence to construct arguments and assess the weakness of arguments in science (National Research Council [NRC], 2012). Argumentation is advantageous as a student-oriented approach to learning science (Osborne, 2010; Osborne, Erduran, Simon, & Monk, 2001) and features a positive effect on science learning in teacher preparation (Boran & Bag, 2016; McDonald, 2014; Rebello & Rebello, 2012; Zohar & Nemet, 2002).

This study also addressed the necessity for a framework for analysis that might provide insights into students’ cognitive resources. it had been important to think about the benefits and drawbacks of current methods of study that reduce students’ dialogues to numbers and codes (Nielsen, 2013; Tippett, 2009) supported the amount of rebuttals and counterarguments.

The need for a framework that permits comparison across studies was also echoed by 42 science education researchers in argumentation at a recent annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (Henderson, McNeill, Gonzalez-Howard, Close, & Evans, 2018). Therefore, this study explored schema theory as an explanatory and exploratory framework for understanding the cognitive resources within students’ dialogic discourse and dialogic argumentation.

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