In recent years, new developments in science education are witnessed. The concept of engineering is now found in teaching curricula – only one example of those new developments. Engineering concepts also are consonant with the character of science education. especially , integrating engineering in science education and linking disciplines in science, technology, engineering and mathematic (STEM) education are reform efforts aimed toward meeting 21st– century needs in education (National Research Council [NRC], 2009).
One of the new subjects within the school setting in US K-12 is engineering (NRC, 2005). The NRC (2005) covers the connection between the foundations of science standards and technological design processes, with students determining the matter , developing an answer or designing a product, applying the planning , and eventually evaluating the planning . Similarly, the concept of engineering was included in secondary school science curricula (Grades 5-8) in Turkey.
In this way, a replacement skill area has been added to the 2018 secondary school science curriculum under the name of “engineering and style skills.” This skill area was aimed toward students having the ability to integrate science, mathematics, technology and engineering subjects and solving problems with a cross-disciplinary approach (The Ministry of Education, 2018).
In parallel with these developments, Turkish secondary school science teachers must incorporate engineering designs for his or her students in their science courses. Science teachers and prospective science teachers must first have an awareness with reference to engineering design. Thus, in Turkey, it had been noted that science teachers’ and prospective science teachers’ experiences regarding STEM education should be improved as a part of preservice and in-service training (Akgündüz et al., 2015).
STEM education is expressed as an interdisciplinary teaching system, consisting of practical approaches aimed toward integrating the four disciplines (Bybee, 2010). In recent years, STEM education has been seen together of the foremost notable innovations in engineering design. during this sense, it’s been acknowledged that STEM education and therefore the engineering design process, which is one among the size of STEM, may have important outcomes for college kids . for instance , within the STEM education process, an interdisciplinary perspective becomes dominant, and students are involved in an inquiry-based learning process (Bell, 2010; Eron & Rachlin, 2015; Milaturrahmah, Mardiyana, & Pramudya, 2017).
Engineering design activities are a strong strategy for the mixing of science, mathematics and technology (Cantrell, Pekcan, Itani, & Velasquez-Bryant, 2006). Moreover, science inquiry and engineering design offer learning opportunities to embody K-12 STEM education (NRC, 2011). Thus, most governments have introduced strong initiatives to market STEM awareness and motivation, as STEM is one among the competitive areas which will determine a nation’s future status (Bahar & Adıguzel, 2016).
In this regard, STEM awareness is seen as a prerequisite for individual interaction, self-efficacy, and self-development (Kovarik et al., 2013). the notice to be created with reference to STEM will, therefore, both increase the four different disciplines’ importance and increase the amount of people that this era needs. because of STEM education, more importance has been given to the planning process (the engineering dimension) in terms of science courses (Bequette & Bequette, 2012). Thus, it’s emphasized that science, or STEM, must be related to other subjects like philosophy, language, history, and therefore the various disciplines in the least levels of education (European Commission, 2015).